Samsung broke all records recently in a demonstration carried out in Suwon, south of Seoul. The company was able to combine 4G and 5G connections in a single device. Guess what speed they were able to achieve? Around 5.23Gbps. Can you believe it?

If this is true, then you can download a 4-gigabyte full-HD movie in six seconds. In fact, you can download it to its Galaxy S20+ smartphone, taking the help of the E-UTRAN New Radio Dual Connectivity (EN-DC) technology.

The Lead Up- Tests Carried Out Earlier

Samsung demonstrated 5G’s capabilities in 2018 with one of the first multi-gigabit 5G New Radio (NR) data links with speeds of over 1.7Gbps. Samsung smashed its own record in 2019 by hitting 2.65Gbps data rates, which were followed by 4.3Gbps speeds in a 2020 demo.

Samsung used two mobile devices to attain speeds of up to 4.3Gbps in April 2020, with both devices achieving an industry peak speed of 8.5Gbps. Two main technologies were used to achieve such incredible 5G speeds: network aggregation and MU-MIMO.

In November 2020, Elisa, Nokia and Qualcomm Technologies achieved a speed of 8 Gbps, world’s fastest 5G speed in Finland on commercial networks. The record was set by simultaneously connecting two Qualcomm 5G mmWave devices to Elisa’s network, which is operated by Nokia 5G equipment.

But, this test was special as it was achieved on the Samsung Galaxy S20+, a commercially available 5G phone. If you are pursuing a degree in telecommunications and writing a paper, you should definitely take note of this aspect. If you are wondering, “Who can do my assignment?” you should take the help of the professional experts.

Test Carried Out on Samsung Galaxy S20+

In the latest demonstration, Samsung merged 40MHz of 4G frequency and 800MHz of 5G frequency in mmWave. This was carried out to achieve 5.23Gbps data rates to a single computer in its lab in Korea.

As per the Vice President of the networks business at Samsung, Ji-Yun Seol,

“Through this demonstration, Samsung is proud to achieve another breakthrough record in 5G data speeds, now spotlighting the power of using a dual 4G and 5G approach, delivered directly to a single user. This reinforces our commitment to delivering the best possible 5G solutions to our customers and our ongoing support to help mobile operators accelerate the benefits of 5G services to their users.”

In order to beat the previous record, Samsung relied on commercial end-to-end solution including a number of devices. These include 4G radios, 5G radios, and 4G/5G common Core, S20+ smartphone. Moreover, the technology that was used is EN-DC technology, which combines 4G and 5G to deliver enhanced speed, reliability and coverage.

What is EN-DC Technology?

As stated before, EN-DC Technology stands for E-UTRAN New Radio – Dual Connectivity. As per the 3GPP standards, user equipment can bind to an LTE enodeB, which serves as a master node. The user equipment can also bind to a 5G gnodeB, which serves as a secondary node, using EN-DC.

EN-DC will enable Sprint devices to access both LTE and 5G at the same time on the same spectrum band: 41/2.5 GHz band. In the EN-DC, the UE consists of a single RRC state based on the MN RRC. There is also a single C-plane connection towards the EPC Core Network.

In the C plane, there is no direct control plane connectivity between EPC core and gNB. Here, the LTE eNB acts as the master node. On the other hand, the 5G gNB acts as the secondary node. Samsung used a technology almost similar to the one mentioned above.

Carrier Aggregation and MU-MIMO

As per Samsung, both MU-MIMO and carrier aggregation were used (stated before). They stated, “It also leveraged carrier aggregation which combines multiple channels of the spectrum to gain greater efficiencies and boost data speeds over a wireless network” So how do the technology work?

MU-MIMO

Multi-user, multiple input, multiple output (MU-MIMO) is a wireless technology that is supported by endpoint devices and routers. It was developed for circumstances where many users are attempting to connect to a wireless network at the same time. Users are served on a first-come, first-serve basis due to the existence of the 802.11 protocol.

Congestion may occur when several users try to access the router at or near the same time, as the router meets the first user’s request while the second (and third, fourth, etc.) waits. Although these delays may seem small, they may add up as more devices (smartphones, laptops, computers, and so on) and users request services. This is where MU-MIMO comes in handy by allowing multiple users to access router functions circumventing the congestion.

Carrier Aggregation

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is a method of combining two or more carriers into a single data channel in order to increase data capacity. Taking two or more contiguous channels within the same frequency band is the best way to aggregate carriers (intra-band, contiguous). Within the same band, it is also possible to combine two or more non-contiguous channels, referred to as ‘intra-band, non-contiguous.’

There are six different carrier aggregation. CA bandwidth (BW) class A has aggregated transmitted BW configurations ≤100 and the number of the component carrier is 1. Similarly, for class B and C, the BW configuration are ≤100 and 100-200, and the number of component carriers is 2 and 2, respectively. Class D, E and F are in the research phase.

If you wish to know more about MU-MIMO and CA, you should pore through various telecom websites, and check out online lectures.

How the Technology Will Come in Handy?

The EN-DC will be extremely beneficial for the telecommunication sector and the common users. It will help the operators employ both 5G and 4G bands to maximize the efficiency of the network. It would greatly help the telecommunication sector, which is making a move from the Long Term Evolution (LTE)/4G to 5G networks.

This will improve the overall service, especially, the data speed. Usually, a full transition to the  5G network will take a significant amount of time. And here, the EN-DC technology will play a pivotal role. As per the experts, 2020 will witness a proliferation of 5G smartphones in various nations.

The Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker by the International Data Corporation predicts that there will be a million shipments of 5G smartphones in India, out of a total of the 150 million units.Furthermore, Samsung has been trying to expand its reach in delivering 5G end-to-end solutions, involving radios and chipsets. The company has signed supply deals with mobile carriers in the USA, Canada and New Zealand.

If you are intrigued by reading this article, you would be surprised to know that is only just the beginning. With the number of devices increasing and daily advancements in the IoT, telecom sector, you will hear about more records in the coming days.

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